You are the owner of this page.
A1 A1
You're right. Omaha-area traffic is getting worse, especially at night

A company that tracks travel data around Omaha says congestion in the metro area is getting worse.

TomTom International BV, which builds location technology and navigation devices, released its global Traffic Index, showing that the Omaha-Council Bluffs area was among 30 major U.S. cities and metro areas experiencing increasing traffic congestion between 2017 and 2018.

After tracking more than 310 million travel miles locally, TomTom found a typical congestion level of 14% in Omaha — meaning trips around the Omaha area take 14% longer than they would without congestion.

In one year, Omaha’s figure rose from 13%. That might not sound like much, but 50 other U.S. cities saw their traffic congestion level drop or at least stay stable for the year, according to TomTom.

Some Omahans take comfort that our traffic isn’t as bad as other major cities.

The comforting statistic in the report: Omaha’s congestion ranks among the best (375th) out of 403 cities in 56 counties.

But the comparisons also add a different perspective to Omaha’s comfort. TomTom estimates that Omaha’s evening rush hour takes 33% longer than it should, which puts Omaha’s worst traffic congestion in line with the average congestion in such places as Chicago (28%), Seattle (31%) and San Francisco (34%).

“I hate to break the chamber of commerce’s heart, but it’s really not a 20-minute city anymore,” said Jim McGee, a longtime transportation official who retired from the Nebraska Department of Roads in 2013.

Officially, Douglas County’s average travel time to work has risen to 19.3 minutes, up from 18.6 minutes about a decade ago, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.

But during the evening rush hour in Omaha, what should be a 20-minute drive comes out to nearly 27 minutes, according to TomTom’s analysis. In the morning, that drive is more like 25 minutes.

Over a month’s time, that equates to a commuter missing a few hours with his or her family, McGee said.

Ralf-Peter Schaefer, TomTom’s vice president of traffic information, said in a statement that the rising traffic is a sign of a strong economy. “But the flip side,” he said, “is drivers wasting time sitting in traffic, not to mention the huge environmental impact.”

Increasing traffic congestion is not a foregone conclusion. In four cities that the Greater Omaha Chamber of Commerce holds out as comparison cities — Austin, Nashville, Salt Lake City and Raleigh — the congestion level either dropped or held the same.

For decades, Salt Lake City has developed its transit system, which includes light rail, streetcars and better bus corridors, along with support for biking and walking, according to Salt Lake City’s Transit Master Plan.

Officials from Omaha’s Metropolitan Area Planning Agency and other community leaders visited Salt Lake City in 2016 to learn about the improvements, said Greg Youell, MAPA’s executive director.

“They’ve done some impressive work out there,” he said.

MAPA and the Nebraska Department of Transportation are continuing work on a long-range plan to guide the Omaha metro area’s transportation future. In late 2017, an interim report estimated that the metro area would need $7.4 billion in improvements long term and, counting inflation, $4 billion of that was unfunded.

As part of that plan, officials are looking at expanding Interstate 80 through Omaha to six lanes, said Tim Weander, the Omaha area’s district engineer for the Department of Transportation.

Sign up for World-Herald news alerts

Be the first to know when news happens. Get the latest breaking headlines sent straight to your inbox.

In the future, advancing technology also will help traffic during periods of congestion, such as adaptive signal controls that respond to traffic demand, Weander said. That technology is nearing implementation in Omaha in some places on Dodge Street, 84th Street, 132nd Street and 144th Street, he said.

But Youell said the Omaha metro area will reach a point where it can’t keep expanding roads. He said the area will need to have “some really important conversations about this.”

“We’re going to have to start looking at alternatives. How do we create better transit? How do we create better strategies with our parking?”

Omaha streets and how they got their names

Grace: 3 of the suspects in Omaha boy's shooting faced trouble at home, with the law

When J’Tavion Smith was in his early teens, his mother’s boyfriend was at the center of incidents that led a state child welfare worker to determine that J’Tavion’s home was volatile and unsafe.

This is the second in a three-part series analyzing what this single non-fatal shooting — an event that happened 100 times last year in Omaha — says about larger issues confronting the city. For more on why we're writing, read the story behind the story, here.

* * *

One shooting, one 13-year-old victim.

Five suspects, all teenagers.

The ages of the four oldest — 18 and 19 — made them adults in the eyes of the court, though they hardly looked like it.

Their mug shots revealed childlike expressions in their wide-eyed stares. The fifth suspect, 16, was a juvenile and therefore not identified publicly in the Omaha police press release that went out after the March 29 shooting.

Age aside, what all five suspects were accused of is hardly child’s play.

One of them allegedly pulled the trigger on a gun that fired a bullet right through 13-year-old R.J. Eckhardt‘s right arm. Another allegedly drove the gunman in her car. The three others allegedly were along for the ride, fully aware — police say — of this mission to commit harm.

It was a case of mistaken identity, as it turned out. Police say the suspects had zero connection to R.J., a seventh-grader who lives in southwest Omaha. They had followed the wrong car and shot at the wrong person.

The suspects got lucky in this regard: R.J. wasn’t killed. They’re not facing murder charges.

Still, use of a firearm to hurt another person can carry a raft of felony charges. The alleged shooter faces a minimum of 15 years in prison on five counts. The three other adults, including a recent high school graduate with a college scholarship, face a minimum of five years apiece on their single charge: conspiracy to commit a felony.

A trial date has not been scheduled.

Three suspects have pleaded not guilty; a fourth plans to do the same; and the 16-year-old has entered a denial in Douglas County Juvenile Court.

If convicted, these young people are poised to lose huge chunks of their lives behind bars.

But this single shooting carries a public cost as well.

Since their arrests in late March and early April, the taxpayer tab has continued to tick up: $37,000 for lockup costs in the Douglas County Jail and Douglas County Youth Center.

And that doesn’t count court fees, or the cost of court-appointed attorneys or transportation to court hearings. Nor does the tally include what it cost for Omaha police and emergency crews to respond to the shooting.

* * *

How did we wind up with young people shooting each other?

The problem is complex and so is the answer.

But a starting point might be a lack of stability at home. This doesn’t mean that children growing up in tough circumstances cannot succeed. Or that children born into every advantage automatically turn into productive citizens.

An oft-cited study that looked at the correlations between childhood trauma and adult health and life outcomes found, perhaps unsurprisingly, a link between the two. The more trauma and hardship a child faced — such as abuse and neglect — the higher the risk that the child would engage in risky behavior later on, including violent behavior, according to the Adverse Childhood Experiences study.

A child who experiences violence is more likely to be a victim of violence, a perpetrator or both, said Dr. Charity Evans, a trauma surgeon at the Nebraska Medical Center. Evans has started hospital-based violence intervention programs there.

And it’s not a small number of children at risk. A U.S. Department of Justice report from 2016 found that one in four U.S. children surveyed had witnessed family or community violence in the past year.

This report, by the Justice Department’s Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, says exposure to violence causes children significant physical, mental and emotional harm and may increase the likelihood that children will fail in school, experience depression and anxiety and become involved in criminal justice systems.

This is why Mary Visek, chief probation officer for Douglas County Juvenile Probation, wants to see society’s attention turn “farther upstream” — before children enter the juvenile justice system. At any given time, Visek said, the county serves an average of 650 to 750 youths on probation.

Most of the time, she said, youths “age out” of their behaviors and bad choices. That is, they grow up. But the deeper into the juvenile justice system they get, she said, the worse off they might be. She said it’s important to identify high-risk families early, when children are young, and work on prevention.

“Everybody in our community has to get better at knowing who needs help and identifying how you (help) the house next door and the house across the street and support people,” she said.

In the case of the March 29 shooting, court records show past trauma and hardship, and also run-ins with the law, for the three male suspects. The two female suspects have no local criminal histories.

The stories pieced together by court records of J’Tavion Smith, Jaqueris Allen and Jaquez Turley start with this fact: No evidence of a father in the picture. Their caregivers, typically mothers and grandmothers, themselves were challenged. By poverty. By criminal activity. By domestic violence.

Some experts, like Evans, said that on a macro level, delinquent behavior is a function of survival.

If a home is in turmoil, if a neighborhood is troubled, a gang with its offer of belonging, identity and security — however criminal — becomes a powerful draw.

* * *


J’Tavion Smith, 18, appears in court on May 8. He is accused of being the shooter who wounded 13-year-old R.J. Eckhardt on March 29.

A gang drew in J’Tavion Smith, who at 18 was well-known to the Omaha Police Department’s gang unit before he allegedly was involved in the shooting of R.J. Eckhardt.

J’Tavion, the alleged gunman on March 29, was involved in past shootings, said police, and was a member of a north Omaha gang subset, the 44th Avenue Crips.

A Police Department criminal history shows J’Tavion’s previous arrests. At age 16, he twice was arrested on suspicion of unlawful occupancy, which means being in a car without permission, and twice he was arrested for obstructing a peace officer.

When he was 17, he was arrested on suspicion of being an accessory to a felony and obstructing a peace officer, a misdemeanor. The felony charge was dropped. But he was assigned to go to the state’s juvenile rehabilitation facility for boys in Kearney for the obstruction charge.

It’s hard to know more because there is no official court record. Under Nebraska law, juveniles who successfully complete the terms of their probation generally have their cases closed to the public. This is a carrot: Behave and the bad record goes away.

“We want them to be able to live their lives,” Visek said. “We want them to move forward.”

What is visible in public records is evidence of exposure to childhood trauma — domestic violence.

J’Tavion’s mother apparently was in a relationship with a man who was abusive. When J’Tavion was 13, his mother sought a protection order against the man, alleging in the application that he had doused her with lighter fluid and chased her around the house.

When J’Tavion was 14, the man showed up at J’Tavion’s home drunk and violent. He kicked the front door and punched a window, and flying broken glass cut J’Tavion’s two younger siblings. An ambulance came, but J’Tavion’s mother denied that the couple were fighting.

The incident triggered a home visit from a state child welfare worker, who determined that J’Tavion’s home was volatile and unsafe. The worker helped J’Tavion’s mother come up with a plan that included telling the boyfriend to stay away and getting domestic abuse support.

But the boyfriend didn’t stay away for long.

Several months later, after he’d been drinking, he took J’Tavion, 14, and J’Tavion’s 9-year-old brother to a house, which they all entered. He gave the boys this pretext: He wanted to check on the people who lived there. Police were called by someone who reported it as a burglary.

The boyfriend locked himself and the two boys inside the home. He ordered the boys to “get low” and crawl to the basement. Then he squeezed into a closet to hide with the children.

Police, wearing ballistics vests stamped SWAT, entered the home shouting, with a K-9 dog snarling. The boys heard police say that if the boyfriend didn’t come out of his hiding place, the dog would be let loose.

“J’Tavion reported that he was scared, that he or his brother were going to get hurt,” says the state’s affidavit for placing the children in foster care. “(The brother) stated that he heard the officer yelling, the dog barking, growling and his paws scratching at the ground, trying to get away from the handler. (The brother) stated he was scared.”

The closet door opened. The dog bit the boyfriend. Then police frisked and handcuffed them all. Including the two children.

The boyfriend went to jail for three days. Then he and the boys’ mother got engaged. Then the boys and another sibling were put into emergency foster care — living at first with their grandmother. That didn’t work out, so the state placed them with someone else during their six months away from home.

Officials don’t remove children from the home lightly. Even when home life is troubled, the act of pulling children away from their parents and the familiar can be more traumatic than what they’re experiencing, Visek said. This, she said, is why the public policy preference is to do everything to keep families together and why juvenile justice reform advocates view detention as a last resort.

J’Tavion and his siblings returned home from foster care. He was 15.

He eventually joined a gang and transferred out of the Omaha Public Schools.

J'Tavion did have some things going his way, though. His mother, Tykeeva Smith, said he finished high school early, graduating at the top of his class from Canyon State Academy, a special school near Phoenix, Arizona, that specializes in at-risk male youths.

Tykeeva said her son earned certificates in welding and landscaping and had a path to college, due to start at Iowa Western in August.

Smith said she did everything she could for her son and tried to advocate for him. She said that once J'Tavion got into the juvenile justice system, he was not given enough structure or consequence — or time to make positive changes stick.

She said she was at her wits' end sometimes trying to contain a teenager who didn't want to follow her rules when he was back home. And that his choices, combined with a lack of follow-through and communication with her from the system, were to blame.

On the night of March 29, police say, J’Tavion was the one with a beef. And a gun.

Omaha Police Detective Dustin Morris testified during J’Tavion’s preliminary hearing that J’Tavion was at Benson High School the night of the shooting. The high school was playing host to the Boys and Girls Clubs of Omaha’s annual all-star high school basketball tournament.

Morris testified that J’Tavion told police that he’d been in some kind of “verbal altercation” at Benson but then said no more.

When asked to identify J’Tavion for the court, Morris looked directly across the Douglas County Courtroom 625 and said:

“He’s wearing an orange jumpsuit.”

J’Tavion has pleaded not guilty to five felony charges: two counts of use of a firearm to commit a felony and one count apiece of second-degree assault, discharging a firearm near a building or vehicle, and criminal conspiracy.

* * *

Jaqueris Allen

Jaqueris Allen, an alleged accomplice, has a long history in Douglas County Juvenile Court.

It started when he was 13. He missed 23 days of middle school, was caught smoking marijuana and was accused of stealing a car — a charge that later was dropped. During that period, his mother had a baby, got evicted and cashed a check she couldn’t cover for $350 at a check-cashing business.

At age 15, his juvenile record noted that he bounced around, going from house to house, skipping important court hearings, cutting his electronic monitor. One poignant line underscored a possible reason why: Jaqueris “did not always eat and has spent nights in a park.”

When Jaqueris was 16, police caught him with a gun, which put him under the watch of juvenile probation for about two years. He was charged with four crimes but was found responsible only for possession of a handgun by a minor and unlawful possession of a handgun.

Jaqueris went into juvenile detention for 20 days. Within a month of being back home, he had to go back into juvenile detention. This time, he was accused of kicking his ex-girlfriend in the head and possessing marijuana.

During his probation, Jaqueris was hardly ever in one place for long. A now-sealed juvenile court record showed eight out-of-home placements over an almost two-year period, including detention and rehabilitation facilities in Omaha and Kearney and a rehab center as far away as Arizona because, the court said, there was nowhere else.

At one point, his mother asked the court for detention for her son because she was worried about his safety.

The bad check caught up with Jaqueris’ mother in the form of a warrant for her arrest. Her wages at McDonald’s were garnished to pay a debt that with fees and interest had ballooned to almost $600 — more than what she made in two weeks at her job. Jaqueris skipped court appearances. Warrants were issued for his arrest.

When Jaqueris was 17, police found him with a loaded .45-caliber handgun in the car.

When Jaqueris was almost 18, he was still smoking weed and struggling to comply with the terms of his probation.

“Said juvenile failed to attend educational programming,” says one record in Jaqueris’ now-sealed juvenile case file. “Said juvenile failed to comply with valid court orders.”

Among the terms of his probation were a host of do’s and don’ts. Do meet with a probation officer. Do wear an electronic bracelet. Do attend school. Don’t drink or do drugs. Don’t hang out with inappropriate friends. Don’t be around weapons. No gangs.

The case file appears to be an exercise in trying everything. At one point, Jaqueris’ then-attorney, Joy Suder, pressed for the court to find him more therapeutic-type help, and the judge agreed.

Somewhere along the way, Jaqueris graduated from Benson High. He got his driver’s license. Both were big deals, positive steps that open doors.

After a rocky 2½ years, the Douglas County Juvenile Court marked his case as successful. He was released from probation in January.

In February, Jaqueris’ sister was sentenced to 20 to 40 years in prison for her role in the stabbing death of a man who had been set up in a robbery.

In March, R.J. Eckhardt was shot.

And Jaqueris was among those charged.

He is now back behind bars. Only this time, it’s the Douglas County Jail. Adult jail. No more juvenile detention. No more juvenile placements. Jaqueris turns 19 on Thursday and will spend that birthday in jail.

Testifying last month, Detective Morris said Jaqueris told police that he had nothing to do with what happened. A police affidavit said Jaqueris said he was “absolutely not the shooter.”

When police searched his mother’s home, officers found a gun inside an outdoor grill and a box of ammunition in his bedroom.

Turns out, the gun didn’t match shell casings left at the March 29 shooting scene. That weapon has not been found.

Jaqueris has been charged with conspiracy to commit a felony. He pleaded not guilty.

* * *


In 1999, Jaquez Turley’s mother was pregnant with him when she was charged with shoplifting. She would be charged with a series of crimes over the course of Jaquez’s young life.

Jaquez Turley seemed destined for a tough life.

In 1999, when his mother was pregnant with him, she was charged with shoplifting. Then came a series of crimes she would be charged with over the course of Jaquez’s life. Her Omaha police criminal history covers two pages and includes 30 misdemeanor-level entries. Her Nebraska court record includes felonies.

Jaquez lived primarily with his grandmother, who was taking care of other children and was struggling to make ends meet. A financial affidavit filed with Jaquez’s juvenile record said she was caring for three children and was receiving food stamps and other federal aid.

Meanwhile, his mother forged checks to big-box stores like the Walmart in York, Nebraska, and the Menards in Fremont. She was in and out of prison or jail from the time Jaquez was 8.

Jaquez showed up in the Douglas County Juvenile Court system for the first time as a delinquent in 2016, when he was 16. He was charged with obstructing a police officer and unlawful occupancy.

His case lingered in juvenile court with little action. He allegedly committed those crimes in October 2016. Charges were filed in February 2017. The court asked for his school records in June 2017.

On July 11, 2017, Jaquez and his grandmother signed off on his probation terms, a page of 19 rules in tiny print outlining what Jaquez had to do for successful release from court supervision. No drugs. No gangs. No “inappropriate behavior.”

Before the month was up, on July 27, Jaquez skipped a juvenile court hearing. A juvenile probation officer reported that Jaquez was testing positive for marijuana, violating curfew and had a gang affiliation. A warrant was issued for his arrest.

Jaquez was found, arrested and placed in Douglas County’s juvenile detention center.

“Said child was on run for about six weeks and is heavily gang-involved,” says a court record from September 2017.

In October 2017, a full year after that initial run-in with police, Jaquez’s case was “terminated unsuccessfully.” He was 17.


Jaquez Turley, 19, in court on May 8 in connection with the shooting.

Visek, head of juvenile probation, declined to comment specifically on Jaquez’s case. A juvenile court judge declined a reporter’s request to see the transcript of the probation termination hearing in time for this deadline. That transcript might have shed light into why Jaquez was let go from the court’s watch.

In general, Visek said juvenile justice advocates want youths to be successfully released from probation. Advocates don’t want long probation terms. Teenagers are going to make mistakes, she said, and “we don’t want to have them on paper forever.”

“We want to let them move on with their life and grow out of their behavior,” she said, adding that most do. Eight out of 10 youths who enter the juvenile system do not get in trouble again.

Jaquez left the Omaha Public Schools in 2017. He has no apparent Nebraska driver’s license.

When interviewed by Omaha police, Jaquez, now 19, said next to nothing about the shooting of R.J. Eckhardt.

“All I’m going to say is ‘I’m not the shooter,’ ” the police affidavit says. “And I’m no snitch.”

Jaquez’s grandmother, Karen Turley, defended her grandson. She expressed anger with the system and with news coverage when reached by phone.

“He didn’t do anything,” she said. “I’m very unhappy about it. I’m sick of the State of Nebraska. He’s not given a fair chance.”

Jaquez has been charged with conspiracy to commit a felony. His attorney, Christopher Roth, said Jaquez is not alleged to be the shooter, the driver or “to have participated in any way.”

“We are going to wait for the evidence to see how the state can prove their case,” he said, adding that his client would be entering the following plea: not guilty.

* * *

The two other suspects, both female, have no Nebraska court records predating the March 29 shooting.

Kheana Noutoua

Unlike their three male counterparts, Kheana Noutoua, 18, and the 16-year-old juvenile have no obvious criminal records.

In fact, Noutoua appears in World-Herald archives as an honor student during her seventh- and eighth-grade years at La Vista Junior High. Her name appears on a more current student honor roll listing, dated January 2019, at St. Pius X Catholic High, a co-ed private school in Kansas City, Missouri.

Her role in the shooting, according to prosecutors, was as an accomplice. Police say Kheana was with the juvenile girl and three young men at Benson High School.

In the affidavit for her arrest, Kheana admitted to police that she was in the car with the group as it waited outside Benson High and that she was in the car as it followed shooting victim R.J. Eckhardt’s family out of the school parking lot and to an address near 48th and Spaulding Streets. And she was in the car during the shooting and after, when the group fled. She rode in the front passenger seat.

Now she faces a felony criminal conspiracy charge. She has pleaded not guilty. A court hearing is scheduled for June 18.

Kheana is the sole suspect of five who got out of jail right away. She was arrested March 31 and was released April 3 on her own recognizance.

Her attorney, Glenn Shapiro, said she is in the Kansas City area with her father. He said her family has declined to comment for this article. Shapiro offered little comment other than to say she was an honor student with a college scholarship at the time of her arrest and “had no involvement in what transpired.”

The 16-year-old was the first suspect arrested.

Police say surveillance video from Benson High the night of March 29 showed a silver Nissan Maxima that investigators linked to the teen’s address near Franklin Elementary School in northeast Omaha.

The next day, on March 30, Omaha police showed up and found her in the passenger seat of that car. In an arrest affidavit, she told police that she was at Benson High with the others and that they left the basketball game and waited in the high school parking lot to follow someone from a rival gang. When told to follow that supposed rival’s car — the car would turn out to belong to an unintended target — the juvenile said she did.

The juvenile was charged with felony criminal conspiracy. She went to juvenile detention, and her attorney, Kevin Ryan, got the criminal case moved to juvenile court. Ryan said the juvenile had “denied” the charge — which in juvenile court is akin to pleading not guilty. Ryan said he expects to change that to an “admission” or guilty plea.

The 16-year-old remained in detention at the Douglas County Youth Center at 42nd Street and Poppleton Avenue until her release on May 17. She has an ankle monitor, a curfew and other requirements.

Nationally, females make up 10 percent or less of gang members. Omaha police and community advocates working with economically disadvantaged girls say gang violence sweeps in girls. They get caught up with gang member boyfriends or serve as drivers or keepers of weapons or buyers, engaging in straw purchases.

“It’s a sad and scary situation that many of these young people find themselves in,” said Omaha Police Sgt. Aaron Hanson, a member of the department’s gang unit. “We’ve dealt with young women in drive-by shootings who have come from amazingly normal, well-off families. Across the metro. They’re driving the car. Or in the car. Or holding the gun.”

Hanson said he did not know the young women in this case but said his experience in general has shown that girls are drawn to gang activity for the same reason boys are: a feeling of involvement, of belonging, of purpose.

Then they reap the same consequences.

* * *


J’Tavion Smith appears in court on May 8. He entered the juvenile justice system at age 16, when he was arrested multiple times on suspicion of unlawful occupancy and obstructing a police officer. 

Four of the five teenage suspects are adults in the eyes of the court.

There is real prison time on the table.

If convicted, Jaqueris Allen, Jaquez Turley and Kheana Noutoua could lose the next five years of their lives. J’Tavion Smith could lose the next 15.

The stakes continue after prison. Convicted felons lose the right to vote. And it’s much harder to find jobs and housing.

But the fifth suspect, the 16-year-old girl, represents the second chance offered to juveniles. She could still finish school. She could still enter adulthood with an unblemished record if she keeps a straight course.

The choice ultimately is hers, but society plays a role, too.

The degree to which she or anyone in the juvenile justice system can be successful will depend, too, on the presence of caring adults who can see past a mug shot or booking sheet.

Wayne Brown of the Urban League calls this “social capital math.” Youths need at least one present adult and multiple positive connections to community groups to blunt hardships at home.

“If you can get the math right,” he said, “you provide a sense of strength, power for that young person to take chances. They’re able to move forward.”

When the equation is flipped? The math can be disastrous.

This story has been updated to include an interview with Tykeeva Smith, the mother of J’Tavion Smith. Tykeeva Smith spoke with The World-Herald on Monday. 

Beyond citizenship question, 2020 Census faces problems

WASHINGTON — A project meant to be a decade in preparation, the 2020 Census still faces a number of uncertainties, which experts warn could lead to an inaccurate count with potentially large effects on federal spending and congressional maps.

A Supreme Court decision over a citizenship question is expected as early as Monday and has dominated much of the conversation surrounding the census. But the project faces other hurdles: the Census Bureau's overall funding, cybersecurity concerns and untested methods.

"A really good way to screw up the American economy and waste a lot of tax payer money is to have a bad census," said Andrew Reamer, a George Washington University professor who studies census data.

Census data influences the flow of billions of federal dollars and thousands of business decisions,

Reamer said, ranging from population surveys to assessments of market penetration.

As recently as May 31, the Government Accountability Office noted hundreds of problems with the census, ranging from the scheduling of in-person counting work to its fraud prevention program, and designated it a "high-risk" operation for the government.

The 2020 Census is not the first to face last-minute challenges. Before the 2000 Census, for instance, the Supreme Court banned the planned use of statistical sampling. Problems with handheld electronics during the 2010 Census required the bureau to reintroduce paper enumeration.

Each time, addressing those problems took massive amounts of work and infusions of federal funds to keep the process rolling. Experts say the Census Bureau could find itself in a similar last-minute scramble over the next few months.

Experts said the Trump administration's decision to add a question asking if respondents are U.S. citizens could raise the cost and risk undercounting noncitizens. That could have an outsize impact in states with higher immigrant populations such as New York, which could lose one or more House seats.

The administration's move to ask about citizenship rocked preparations for the decennial count, as congressional Democrats and advocates argued that noncitizens might not respond.

States and civil rights groups, including New York Attorney Geeral Letitia James, sued in 2018, alleging that the decision broke the law. Trial judges in three separate cases agreed, and the administration appealed, arguing that the bureau needs the citizenship question responses to help enforce the Voting Rights Act.

In April, the Supreme Court heard the case. The government asked the justices to rule before the end of June so it can finalize the questionnaires for printing.

Then came a potential bombshell. Advocates revealed on May 30 that they hold documents suggesting that a deceased Republican redistricting strategist served as the source of the question, intending to draw congressional maps for GOP political advantage.

Democrats argued that the documents demonstrate a deliberate attempt to turn the census into a political weapon. It was unclear whether the Supreme Court justices would consider the documents in deciding whether to allow the question.

Defenders of the citizenship question have said that even if noncitizens do not respond to the questionnaire, they may still be counted by the census's follow-up operations. But that drop in self-response could make the census more expensive by tens of millions of dollars.

The bureau has estimated that for each percentage point of households that don't respond to the census, it costs an additional $55 million to do in-person enumeration. Census Bureau researchers have estimated that the citizenship question may reduce the response rate among noncitizens by 5%, pushing them into the more expensive in-person process.

That report estimated that the cost of the census could increase by more than $120 million as a result of the citizenship question. Those estimates will be tested later in June, as the Census Bureau sends out surveys to 480,000 households nationally to gauge the impact of the question on response rates.

House appropriators aim to allocate billions of dollars for the Census Bureau in anticipation of next year's count, including $8.45 billion in a bill approved by a House committee on May 22. That blew past the administration's request of $6.1 billion for the 2020 Census.

Sen. Jeanne Shaheen said talks over introducing a Senate version of that bill are in limbo.

A shutdown or continuing resolution to keep the government open past Sept. 30 could disrupt census preparations, leaving the bureau without the resources to hire staff, open offices and take the other steps needed before the census launches in January.

Even if the bureau eventually gets that money, timing could be a problem. For the past several years, Congress and the administration have missed the deadline for annual appropriations bills.

That could leave the Census Bureau billions of dollars short of what the administration has said it would need, $3.5 billion in appropriated funds in the current fiscal year. The Census Bureau's current operational plan would have it hiring thousands of staff, opening hundreds of offices and finalizing its address list for 2020 during the fall.

Once the Supreme Court settles the citizenship dispute and Congress settles funding issues, the actual operation of the census will start with initial tallying in Alaska.

In response to the GAO's May 31 report on the hundreds of problems with the census, the Census Bureau told Congress that it has taken steps to address gaps, hiring staff for contract monitoring, cost management and scheduling. Census Bureau Director Steven Dillingham told House appropriators in May that the census is "on time and on budget" and that the agency intends to meet goals such as hiring all of its 1,500 local outreach staff by July.

Former Census Bureau Director John Thompson, who left the administration in 2017, said parts of the census operations are hard to gauge ahead of time.

"Even though the Census Bureau says it is on track, we are not going to know until they launch operations," he said.

Several census-watchers, including former Census Bureau directors like Kenneth Prewitt, who served from 1998 to 2001, have argued that the census process remains vulnerable to interference from domestic and foreign actors.

Attempts to disrupt the census could include attempts to steal responses, Prewitt said, or could be as simple as a Facebook post advising people not to fill out forms. The census process gives major social media companies like Facebook a short window to deal with that kind of disruption, he stressed.

"To undo that kind of messaging in the time frame you have available is going to be difficult," Prewitt said.

Many teens, and parents, go to sleep and wake up with phones

Four out of five teenagers with mobile devices keep them in their rooms overnight — and nearly a third of those bring them into their beds while sleeping — according a study that offered new evidence that mobile devices undermine the rest necessary for peak health.

The research results, released May 29 and based on a poll of 1,000 children and parents by consumer advocacy group Common Sense, offered the most comprehensive picture yet of the impact of mobile devices on teen sleep patterns, which researchers long have warned can undermine cognitive functioning and mental health while increasing obesity rates. The poll also found that smartphones caused conflict within homes as many parents fear the devices are causing their teens to become "addicted."

But the most striking findings, according to researchers, concerned the round-the-clock nature of how teens use mobile devices. Many reported using their phones moments before bedtime, almost immediately upon rising and at least occasionally during the night; the main activities included checking social media, playing games and watching videos.

Many parents of teenagers reported similar — and equally worrying — habits about their own smartphone use.

"People are using their mobile devices all the time," said sleep researcher Lauren Hale, a professor of public health at Stony Brook University, who reviewed the study by Common Sense. "I'm not surprised by these numbers, but they certainly are high."

Common Sense, based in San Francisco, often criticizes Silicon Valley while advocating on behalf of parents struggling to manage teen technology use, but chief executive James P. Steyer said the new research should be a wake-up call, especially to mothers and fathers.

"It's a parent's responsibility to understand this in terms of their own sleep and in terms of their kids' sleep," Steyer said.

He also called on the technology industry, which over the past year has given parents new tools to limit their children's use of mobile devices, to mount public information campaigns publicizing the importance of restful sleep. Researchers consistently point to sleep as crucial to the mental and physical health of people, including teenagers.

"It's incumbent upon the industry to take a role in changing this behavior," Steyer said.

Psychologist Jean Twenge, who warned in her 2017 book "iGen" of the ill effects of social media and smartphone use by teens, called the Common Sense findings about devices in bedrooms "stunning and horrifying."

"I knew the problem was bad, but I didn't know it was this bad," Twenge said. "There's lots and lots and lots of studies in medical journals showing that people who keep their devices next to them when they sleep don't sleep as well, and they also don't sleep as long."

The blue light emitted by the screens of mobile devices has been associated with poor sleep, researchers say, but mobile devices also can cause emotional stimulation — through violent games or engaging forms of social media — that also can impair sleep or simply delay the moment when people fall asleep.

The Common Sense study, called "The New Normal: Parents, Teens, Screens, and Sleep in the United States," found that 68% of parents believe that their teenage children spend "too much time" on their mobile devices, and 61% believe that their teenagers are "addicted"- about the same as the group found in a similar study in 2016.

But teens themselves are feeling better about their use of mobile devices than in that study, when 50% reported feeling "addicted" to smartphones, compared with 39% in the latest report.

The concerns about the overuse of mobile devices are not limited to teens. Nearly half of parents surveyed reported feeling personally "addicted" to their devices, and 83% keep them in their bedrooms at night, with 12% keeping the devices in bed with them.

Teens also complained about how much their parents are using smartphones, with 38% of teens reporting that their parents are "addicted" to their mobile devices.

The overall margin of error for the poll was 4.4 percentage points.