1521: Ignatius of Loyola was wounded by a cannonball while defending Pamplona against the French; during his convalescence he turned to religion, becoming a leader of the Counter-Reformation and the founder of the Jesuits.

1873: Levi Strauss and tailor Jacob Davis received a U.S. patent for men's work pants made with copper rivets.

1899: Taxi driver Jacob German was pulled over and arrested by a police officer riding a bicycle for speeding down Manhattan's Lexington Avenue in his electric car at 12 miles an hour at a time when the speed limit was 8 mph; it was the first recorded speeding arrest in U.S. history.

1932: Amelia Earhart took off from Newfoundland to become the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic.

1939: Regular trans-Atlantic mail service began as a Pan American Airways plane, the Yankee Clipper, took off from Port Washington, New York, bound for Marseille, France.

1948: Chiang Kai-shek was inaugurated as the first president of the Republic of China (Taiwan).

1959: Nearly 5,000 Japanese-Americans had their U.S. citizenships restored after choosing to renounce them during World War II.

1961: A white mob attacked a busload of Freedom Riders in Montgomery, Alabama, prompting the federal government to send in U.S. marshals to restore order.

1985: Radio Marti, operated by the U.S. government, began broadcasting; Cuba responded by attempting to jam its signal.

1993: An estimated 93 million people tuned in for the final first-run episode of the sitcom "Cheers" on NBC.

1998: The government unveiled the design for the new $20 bill, featuring a larger and slightly off-center portrait of Andrew Jackson.

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